Only If History Could Be Altered!
Human Beings cannot control the flow of events in History… Else, it might have been easier for some to make a trip or two to the Past and to make changes in their works for the betterment of the Human Civilisation. That is why we have to shape our Future on the basis of the Present.
After the fall of erstwhile Soviet Union, many had blamed Karl Heinrich Marx’s (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) ideas on Socialism and Communism, stating that the German Philosopher, Economist, Historian, Sociologist, Political Theorist, Journalist and Socialist Revolutionary had failed to study the History in a proper manner! It is evident in his Communist Manifesto that Marx used to believe that exploitation by the Bourgeoisie or owners of the means of production would prompt the Working Class to revolt against the Capitalist System, thus, bringing a change in the Society. It is to be noted that the Communist Manifesto was first published on February 21, 1848, when the author’s age was just 30! The Manifesto opens with the dramatic words: “A spectre is haunting Europe – the spectre of Communism”, and ends by declaring: “The Proletarians have nothing to lose, but their chains. They have a world to win. Workers of the world, unite!” Indeed, the young Karl Marx was confident that the Working Class would revolt against the Capitalist System, consciously! That is why he wrote: “The Capitalist Society is pregnant with a Revolution!”
After studying the History of Human Civilisation, Marx argued that Capitalism would inevitably self-destruct and would be replaced by Socialism, and ultimately Communism. He authored the Manifesto at a time of unprecedented industrial and social change. Newly industrialised cities were expanding, with people moving from the rural to urban areas in search for work. At that period of time, the economic growth was dependent on the workforce, although the majority of Working Class used to live in abject poverty in contrast with the relative wealth of their employers. In such a scenario, the German Philosopher formulated his Theory of History, which he considered as a complex series of Class Struggles that would overthrow of the Ruling Class.
Some may even ponder over the fact that when Marx had penned the Manifesto, Psychology was not an established field of Science. Although Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939) was four decades junior to Marx, the Austrian Neurologist and the Founder of Psychoanalysis (a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst) came up with the description of the three levels of the mind – conscious, subconscious and unconscious – only in 1915, 32 years after the passing away of Marx! Hence, Marx hardly had much idea about the subconscious state of mind… and, it weakened his Theory of Class Struggle. Had Freud analysed human mind before 1883, Marx would have realised that the subconscious mind might not allow the Working Class to revolt against the Capitalist System. In that case, the German Philosopher might have got an opportunity to update his Thought Process, and to redefine his Theory.
This may be thought of as the Tragedy of History. Although Antonio Gramsci, Louis Althusser and other thinkers made attempts to enrich the Marxian Idea of Social Change in the 20th Century, Marxism still remains an emotional concept, rather than a scientific one, as claimed by the Communists! A Psychological Base could help the Marxist Thoughts become relevant even in the contemporary world. It could also allow his followers to experiment with Socialism and Communism, especially when Capitalism is in deep crisis. Although there are people, who would lament the fact that History did not give an opportunity to Marx to modify his own Theories during his lifetime, a careful glance at his treatise on Anti-Dühring, Feuerbach, et al – coupled with writings of Friedrich Engels – have indeed added facets to dynamic processes of thoughts and effective actions that have handed over to his followers, ample provisions to carry on with his Ideas, thus, forming the solid base of their actions to lift Mankind to Awakening!
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