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Trial, Fission, Fusion & Conclusion

A sort of monomania, powered by megalomania, had seemingly influenced the two Superpowers in the middle of the 20th Century, as the US and the erstwhile Soviet Union were locked in a Cold War! An urge to prove what would be the more powerful System of Governance – Capitalism or Socialism – had been the curse of the Second World War… If the First World War belonged to Chemistry because of the Toxic Gases, the Second World War certainly belonged to Physics due to the Atomic Bombs. Scientists in Germany had correctly realised the fact that the main function of an Atomic Bomb is the division of its own atoms. In other words, Atom Bombs are Nuclear Weapons that use the energetic output of Nuclear Fission to produce Explosions in a very large scale. On the other hand, Hydrogen Bombs take into account both the phenomena of fission and fusion in order to power their greater explosive potential. One of those scientists was Albert Einstein!

Einstein and other German Scientists, who had taken shelter in the US, thought that as the basic principle of the Atomic Bomb was discovered in Germany, the European Powerhouse might proceed to build the first Atomic Bomb. The United States of America started experimenting with Atomic Bombs out of this fear!

Albert Einstein

The US managed to prepare a trial of an Atomic Bomb in 1945, the final year of the Second World War. At the end of the Great War, the Soviet Union emerged as a Superpower, and the main rival of the US. The US thought that the Soviet would take at least seven more years to make Atomic Bombs. The top Political Leadership in Washington DC had no idea that the Kremlin had already collected the design of the American Atomic Bomb through spies.

According to American Theoretical Physicist Richard Phillips Feynman, German Theoretical Physicist and atomic spy Klaus Emil Julius Fuchs (December 29, 1911 – January 28, 1988) supplied information from the American, British and Canadian Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union during and shortly after the Second World War in order to ensure the Balance of Power! The Soviet Union surprised the US by testing an Atomic Bomb in 1949 (four years after the US). Then, the US planned to make a Hydrogen Bomb, which would be much stronger than the Atomic Bomb. As expected, the Soviet Union, too, followed the suit, triggering the Cold War, as well as an Arms Race! With this, experimental testing of bombs began in Water, on Land, and in Space!

Klaus Fuchs

Giles Harrison, the Professor of Atmospheric Physics in the Department of Meteorology at the University of Reading in the UK, wanted to know how much damage was done to the environment by experimental explosions of Atomic Bombs and Hydrogen Bombs. In an article published in Physical Review journal, Dr Harrison stated that he had chosen the period between 1962 and 1964 for the study as the experimental explosion was at its peak during this point of time. Many explosions took place in the Nevada Desert (the US), the Kazakh Desert (in the Soviet Union) and also in the Pacific Ocean in the early 1960’s.

Giles Harrison

Dr Harrison observed that immediately after Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs were test-fired by the US and the Soviet Union, the UK received 24% more rainfall than the average! As excessive rainfalls are detrimental to crops, Britain had to face food shortages because of the two Superpowers. The Human Civilisation is well aware of the dangers of Radioactivity! However, the survey, conducted by Dr Harrison, helped one realise that Arms Race could also trigger heavy rainfalls thousands of miles away. It is an irony that still, we are actively engaged in such an Arms Race!

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